Category: "Valve Refacers"
For the past three or four decades the automotive industry witnessed substantial reductions in the number of valve servicing operations being performed. Leaded, high octane fuel burned in high compression engines developing high horsepower was the reason.
Even when these engines did need valve service the car owner might not be aware of it because his car's engine had a great excess of power which he hardly ever called upon.
Today the picture is changing. Lower compression ratios and unleaded fuels are the order of the day. They are the result of the need to reduce air pollution. And with these new conditions comes the need for maintaining high engine efficiency if performance and emission control standards are to be maintained
Valve misalignment can occur in a comparatively new engine of any make. How many car operators know or understand this? The service shop operator must begin to develop new means and methods for selling service, and especially for selling car owners on the importance of servicing valve and valve seats. He can easily do this by explaining the benefits that will be effected from a valve realigning operation.
Above is a new valve, true and mechanically accurate in all its proportions — the condition in which it is installed in an engine. The valve face and the valve stem are concentric with the same center line — the center line of the valve stem itself.
Above is a warped valve. The warp- age occurs only in that part which is subjected to extreme heat — the portion above the guide — and in the valve head. The valve face must be restored to concentricity with the portion of the stem that operates in the guide.
ENGINE BLOCKS CHANGE SHAPE DURING SEASONING PERIOD — USUALLY WITHIN THE FIRST FIVE THOUSAND MILES
Years ago it was customary for engine manufacturers to stack engine blocks out in the weather so that they might become seasoned. These were corded up like wood. Tracks were laid between the piles and workmen were kept constantly busy bringing in the blocks and facing off first the top and then the bottom; then placing them out in the weather again for another period of seasoning between machine operations. All of this was done to eliminate casting strain. This seasoning operation as a rule took from six months to a year after the casting was made.
Compare this with our present day method of pouring iron ore into an electric furnace and having it come out of the plant in from forty-eight to sixty hours — a complete running engine. These blocks are normalized or heat-treated to eliminate casting strains. But remember! When these blocks are heated and cooled over a period of time in the operation of an engine, or when the head nuts or bolts are not drawn down evenly with a torque wrench, the different shapes and radii of the manifold near the valve guide will cause misalignment of the guide to the seat, and must be corrected in order to get maximum performance from the engine.
HARDENED VALVE SEATS PREVENT VALVES FROM HAMMERING IN
Since the introduction of hardened valve seats it is impossible for the valve to hammer in as before. Therefore, the misalignment caused by warping of or changing of the shape of the metal in the block will set up a friction between the valve stem and the valve guide. This will soon wear the valve guide as well as the valve stem and to a point that will partially destroy the effectiveness of the valves. A normally worn valve guide is illustrated above. It is worn at points A-B at top left hand and at bottom right hand for the reason that the valve seat is higher at the right hand side. The valve strikes the high side of the seat first, then bounces to the left. As the valve spring pulls the valve down, valve stem friction causes the wear as shown.
BLOCK IS DISTORTED IF HEAD NUTS ARE TIGHTENED WITHOUT USE OF TORQUE WRENCH
Another factor entering into valve misalignment is the distorting strain set up in the block or head due to the unevenness of tightening which results when a torque wrench is not used. Due to differences in stance of the operator, and other human factors, some of the head nuts or bolts are tightened excessively if torque is not measured. This always happens when a torque wrench is not used. In tightening head nuts or bolts, follow factory torque recommendations.
If you will check the valve seat nearest the bolts that are tightened excessively you will find the part of the seat nearest the bolt will be worn shiny; while the side of the seat opposite to or away from the bolt will be pitted or burned. It therefore follows that a properly aligned valve job may easily be spoiled by improper tightening of cylinder head nuts or bolts.
A properly aligned valve job may easily be spoiled by improper tightening of cylinder head nuts or bolts. The remedy is simple. It is as easy to use a torque wrench as any socket handle.
LOCATING FOR REALIGNING VALVE SEATS
Several mei.iods are being used today to locate the grinder for realigning and resurfacing valve seats. There is, however, one accepted method that engineering practice has never improved upon. As an illustration, it has been common practice in machine shops for the past thirty or forty years to use what is known as a "machine arbor." This is a piece of hardened and ground steel microscopically tapered from end to end. Whenever a piece of precision work having a hole in the center was brought back to a lathe for machining, such an arbor was used to keep the machine work concentric with the hole in the center of the piece.
The Kwik-Way Manufacturing Company recognized the infallible accuracy of this procedure and designed a Tapered Arbor to be used for centering the valve seat alignment operation. The application of this arbor to the operation of servicing valve seats is covered by patents owned by the Kwik-Way Manufacturing Company and although widely imitated, it is not or should not be made available for this use by other manufacturers.
NONE BUT A TAPERED ARBOR WILL PROPERLY ALIGN A VALVE SEAT RECONDITIONING OPERATION
The Kwik-Way Tapered Arbor, commonly known as a Pilot, is microscopically tapered throughout the stem (the part that enters the guide). When inserted in the guide it takes its alignment from the least worn portion of the guide, which is towards the center, and not from the bell mouth portions on either end. Note (illustration at right) that the arbor does not contact the worn portions A-B at top and bottom of the guide and is not misaligned by those worn portions. It is accurately aligned by the unworn part. The Kwik-Way Eccentrimeter (below) measures the concentricity of the valve seat with relation to the guide. Some of the imitations have a straight surface for the greater portion of the stem with a conical or cork- shaped part for about an inch at the top. Since the valve has been crowded over to one side of the valve guide due to misalignment and the peculiarities of valve spring tension, the wear caused by this crowding of the valve stem to one side makes the top portion of the guide a most unsatisfactory point from which to locate for reconditioning of the seat. The seat cannot be reconditioned and realigned so it will be concentric with the actual center line of the valve guide.
CHECKING FOR WEAR IN VALVE GUIDE
In reconditioning a valve seat in an engine that has had considerable use, it is first necessary to determine whether or not the wear in the guide is beyond the point where the guide will be satisfactory for further use.
Through the use of the Kwik-Way Tapered Arbor the amount of wear can be determined. Kwik-Way Tapered Arbors are manufactured in steps of one-thousandth of an inch in undersize and oversize. By using a range of arbors, the amount of guide wear may easily be determined. The arbor, when inserted in the guide, actually becomes a plug gage for the worn guide. It is not good practice to use guides that are worn more than .003".
Insert another type arbor in a valve guide where there is considerable wear at the top and bottom. Try such an arbor as mentioned in preceding paragraphs and there will be an excessive misalignment due to the wedging of the cork or conical-shaped part of the arbor into the worn portion of the guide. Note (illustration left) that the conical or cork-shaped upper portion of that type arbor or pilot will contact the upper worn portion of the guide which also causes the lower portion to contact the bottom worn section of the guide. It is, therefore, misaligned by these worn portions. By checking such an arbor with an indicator, it is easy to prove this point as it is almost impossible to get the same reading twice. The Kwik-Way Tapered Arbor may be reinserted any number of times and checked with an indicator, and it will be proven that it will properly align itself each time it is inserted. It will be found that a seat trued up from a Kwik-Way Tapered Arbor is concentric with the actual center line of the valve stem guide.
ENGINE VALVES PERFORM FUNCTIONS OTHER THAN SEALING COMPRESSION
The valves in an engine have numerous functions. First, they must permit the intake of fuel and air. Then they must seal compression. After the explosion the exhaust valve must permit the burned gases to leave the combustion chamber. Then there is one other function that valves must perform. They must streamline these gases and make it possible for them to move into and out of the combustion chamber as rapidly as possible, and, when the gases leave the combustion chamber, they must be so directed that they will not swirl or congest in a manner that will prevent the complete scavenging of the cylinder. The terrific pressure at which the gases pass through the exhaust manifold will normally create a vacuum in the cylinder, which in turn will assist in the complete scavenging of the cylinder.
Years ago, before engines operated at a high rate of speed, the matter of streamlining the gases was not considered an important one. When it is considered that at an average speed of fifty miles per hour there are twenty intakes, twenty explosions and twenty exhausts in each cylinder every second, it is not difficult to realize the importance of streamlining the gases. Automotive engineers today recognize this and in many instances have changed the shape of the valve towards the tulip design or designed them with a large fillet on the under side of the valve. The purpose of this fillet is to streamline the gases so they will pass freely out of the exhaust manifold. Most poppet valves are made at an angle of forty-five degrees, and being round they permit, (provided the valve is properly aligned), the exhaust gases to rush towards each other in a circle and under terrific pressure at an enormous velocity. This actually creates a vacuum that completely scavenges the cylinder. If the gases are not guided by the fillet under the valve, they collide and swirl, so to speak, which will cause a congestion in the manifold. This congestion will work against the proper elimination of the gases.
DO NOT ALTER SHAPE OF VALVE PORTS
For this reason service mechanics should avoid cutting away the port below the valve seat and should be very particular not to destroy the radius that may be above the valve seat in diesel- type engines especially. This radius was placed there for a purpose by the designer of the engine.
MISALIGNMENT OF VALVES AND VALVE SEATS AFFECTS STREAMLINING OF GASES
Inasmuch as the shape of the valve and stem have the effect of streamlining the gases, a valve that is misaligned or a valve seat that is distorted by unevenly tightened head bolts will very seriously affect the operation of an engine. The timing will be changed as a result of the valve contacting the high portion first, then later being pulled into contact with the seat by the tension of the spring. The time that elapses between the contacting of the high spot and of the valve being pulled into contact with the seat, while of exceedingly short duration, is really of considerable importance, due to piston travel. Consider an exhaust valve that has been misaligned, or a valve seat that has been distorted by lack of torque control whereby the valve contacts one side of the seat first. This causes the valve to cool more quickly on that side — contracting the fillet — causing the valve to press harder on the seat at one point while the remainder of the valve is cracked open. It is common for such a crack to be opened as wide as .015 of an inch. Therefore, the hot gases rushing out of the combustion chamber pass a portion of the valve only, cause the fillet to expand on that particular side which opens the orifice even wider, further maligning the valve.
Since the gases that pass this leak do not meet the gases that should pass from the side that is closed, they strike the exhaust manifold on one side causing the stream of gas to swirl (see page 11). This will cause a congestion which will prevent the complete scavenging of the cylinder, so that when the piston
reaches the top of the scavenging stroke, there will be a slight compression in the cylinder. This can be compared to turning a high-pressure hose into a drain in a basin. The stream striking the bowl "head-on" will swirl or boil and the basin will fill up and run over. By directing the stream slightly to one side, it will be found that the drain will take care of the flow of water satisfactorily. It is obvious, therefore, that the piston will have to travel partially back down again to relieve this slight compression before the intake of gas can begin (see page 14). This would be the equivalent of shortening the stroke of the engine, with the resulting loss of power, to say nothing of the results that would arise from exhaust gases being left with the combustible mixture that is drawn in with the intake stroke.
This shows the piston at "Bottom Dead Center" just at the beginning of the exhaust stroke. The misaligned exhaust valve is causing the gases to begin to swirl which will cause a congestion in the exhaust manifold and prevent proper scavenging of the cylinder.
This shows the distance of piston travel during the first 45° of exhaust stroke. It also shows the ideal condition with valves in correct alignment. Note the streamlining of exhaust gases for rapid and complete scavenging of the cylinder.
This shows a warped exhaust vaive fully open, intake valve closed, at the beginning of the last 45° of the exhaust stroke. The continued swirl of gases in the exhaust manifold is retarding the rapid scavenging of the cylinder.
Distance of piston travel at the first 45° of intake. Congestion in the exhaust manifold has prevented complete scavenging, leaving a slight compression in the cylinder. The piston must, therefore, move slightly downward to relieve this compression before intake of gas can begin. This is equivalent to shortening the engine stroke.
The piston keeps on Traveling while the valve is sliding improperly off or on the seat
A piston may have completed one-fifth of its travel by the time the misaligned exhaust valve completely contacts the seat. In an ordinary engine a valve is lifted about .001" by the cam, while the fly wheel is traveling from two to three degrees, depending upon the make of the engine. If the valve is cracked open as much as .015" on one side, we therefore would have a piston travel of three degrees times .015", or forty-five degrees of crank travel. Consider this in connection with the fact that when a car is moving at the rate of fifty miles per hour, the reciprocal action of the piston is approximately twenty times a second, and when the valve port is not entirely open all the way around, the piston goes to the top, creates a slight compression as has been previously described, and will return approximately a distance represented by forty-five degrees of crank travel before intake gases can enter the cylinder.
RESULT OF LATE VALVE ACTION
In case of extreme misalignment of both intake and exhaust valves, some of this slight compression in the cylinder may be forced into the intake manifold causing pre-ignition. This is noticeable at higher speeds and is indicated by an occasional cough or backfire of the engine.
Definitely, there is much more to a valve's performance than the function of sealing compression. On one of the popular makes of engines, when the crank pin moves from top dead- center to a point equal to forty-five degrees, the piston has traveled down approximately twenty percent of its entire stroke. The piston in the same engine when moved forty-five degrees from the bottom dead-center will travel up only thirteen percent of its stroke. In other words, the piston is moving a greater distance at forty-five degrees of travel from top dead-center (see page 14), than it does in the same distance from bottom dead-center (see page 12), and it is when the piston is at the top that the exhaust valve is closing and the intake valve is opening. If you will consult late "Valve Timing Data," you will find that in some of the engines the intake valve opens twenty-six degrees before top dead-center and in the same engine the exhaust valves close at thirty-four degrees after dead- center. This means that both valves are open at the same time for a period of sixty degrees.
When these factors are taken into consideration, it must be admitted that misalignment of .001 of an inch on a valve is one of the most important dimensional elements in an engine.
Actual tests have proven that if the ordinary valve struck the valve seat on one side .001" sooner than it did on the other, it would take .010" of clearance between the valve stem and the guide at the bottom of the valve guide to let the valve rest on the opposite side of this seat without bending the stem. Truly then, valve alignment is exceedingly important.
Many service shop operators claim they are perfectly satisfied with the results they are getting. They also claim they are having no trouble. They may not be having trouble, but the owners of the engines they service do have trouble. In most instances they do not know where the trouble exists or where to place the blame, because they have never learned that engine performance can be restored to the equivalent of new after an engine has been run for some time. Many mechanics think because they have .002" or .003" clearance between a valve stem and valve guide they have that much to play with as the valve stem when cold is .003" and sometimes .004" smaller than the hole in the valve guide. This clearance was left there by the engineer to allow for expansion of the valve stem at the top of the guide so there will only be room for a film of oil when the engine is warm and running. There are engines that employ valve guides tapered as much as .004 of an inch, but it was the intention of the engineers that this clearance be reduced to normal clearance when the valve stem itself becomes heated and expands.
PROPER ALIGNMENT ESSENTIAL
In correcting a warped or misaligned valve so it will function properly when placed in an engine, the valve face must be restored to concentricity with the center line of that portion of the stem that operates in the valve guide. Wet grinding is considered a necessity for today's valves and all newer valve facers include a coolant system.
The above illustration shows the effect of holding a valve in a chuck that grips the end of the stem in a cone, and, as indicated by the check marks, in the distorted portion above the guide travel. A valve chucked in this manner cannot be refaced concentric with its original center. Note the valve face is eccentric to the center line of the stem. It is impossible for such a valve to seal compression.
In this illustration we have the effect of holding a valve in a chuck that grips it only on the distorted portion, as indicated by the four check marks. Note the true center line "AB" and the false center line "CD" established by this refacing operation. As this valve is refaced at a tangent to the true center, it will leak compression.
To properly correct a warped or distorted valve it is necessary to grip the valve stem in two places, with a three-point grip, within that portion of the stem that operates in the guide, as shown in this illustration. We know of no other way of accomplishing the proper results. Note that this finished valve face is concentric with the true center line of the valve. The shaded portion "E" shows metal removed. The Kwik-Way Chuck (illustrated below) was designed to accomplish these results. While it has been imitated in many ways, it has never been definitely copied.
Any valve face that is not concentric with the part of the stem that operates in the guide will contact the valve seat on only a small portion of its circumference. It will slap, bounce, be noisy, leak compression and affect valve timing. A properly corrected valve will contact the valve seat throughout its entire circumference and the valve stem will "float" in the guide, free from valve stem friction. Fuel economy and utilization of all possible power will be the result.
The fact that the use of grinding compound will not secure effective results in a valve reseating operation has been accepted for a number of years by the authorities in the industry. It is possible, through the use of compound, to effect a joint between the valve and the valve seat when the engine is cold, but as soon as the valve becomes heated from the natural heat of the engine, the portion that has been ground with compound will not contact the seat due to expansion of the metal. Here is the reason why.- A valve head 2" in diameter heated to 1450° (the normal temperature of an exhaust valve in operation), will expand .016", or .008" from each side of center. This means the valve will rise on the seat. The illustration below shows a valve and seat "ground in" with compound. When the engine is cold the valve and seat apparently form complete contact; but when the valve is heated and has raised, the portion ground in with compound is actually not in contact with the seat at all, and it is impossible for it ever to be when the engine is functioning. Through the use of the Kwik-Way Tapered Arbor for aligning a valve reseating operation, a compression-tight joint may be secured between the valve and the valve seat and this joint will be effective whether the valve is hot or cold. The use of compound on a valve so realigned would really prove detrimental.
Diesel engines occupy a very important position in the service field today. Knowledge of diesel engines should be acquired by everyone in the service industry and as rapidly as possible. In diesel engines of the two-cycle type any tendency for the burned gases to collide or swirl as they are passing out will delay the expulsion and carry the timing over to a point where harmful results will occur, since in this type engine there must be a complete intake of fresh air, compression and ignition in one revolution of three hundred and sixty degrees. In addition, the burned gases must be expelled from the cylinders and the exhaust valve cooled for the next operation. The exhaust valves are cooled while resting on the seat. It is interesting to note that the exhaust valve in a two-cycle engine has sixty per cent less time allowed for cooling than the valves in a four-cycle engine.
A check-up was recently made of a two-cycle diesel engine used in transportation service. This particular engine was operating on a fuel consumption of approximately forty gallons per hour at wide open throttle and at full load, whereas the engine was rated to perform satisfactorily under these conditions on about nine gallons per hour. The engine had been in service intermittently for twenty-three days. As a theoretical analysis of the reason for excessive fuel consumption, let us consider the following:
Upon removing the cylinder heads it was found that the misalignment of the seats was about .01 6". The misalignment of the valves was not checked. Excessive consumption of fuel was the result of valve and valve seat misalignment. The injectors were checked and found to be o.k. Compression appeared normal and the blowers to scavenge the cylinders were producing their normal pressure to blow the burned gases out of the cylinders. In this particular engine the fuel injections take place at 5° ahead of center at an idle speed. The power stroke is complete at about 100°, at which time the exhaust valves open in the cylinder head to permit blowing off the terrific pressure in the cylinder. The exhaust valves are open for a period ofVALVE TIMING OF A 2 CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE
137°. About fifty times the normal capacity of the cylinder at atmospheric pressure in compressed gases has to be eliminated through the exhaust valves, since the piston travels down to expose ports in the cylinder and admit air for scavenging. These ports are open 50° each side of the bottom dead-center. From the time the exhaust valves open and the air ports are exposed by the piston traveling downward, 30° of crankshaft travel has taken place. In other words, when 130° is reached on the crankshaft, the piston has traveled down and exposes the ports in the cylinder and admits air to scavenge the cylinder. These ports are closed by the upward movement of the piston. Then the exhaust valves close and the piston travels up, compressing the gases at a ratio of about sixteen to one.
This particular engine had a maximum r.p.m. of seven hundred and twenty. This means that it made one revolution in 1/12 of a second, and since thirty degrees is 1/1 2th of a revolution, then the equivalent time allotted to blow off the high pressure was equal to 1/144th of a second.
The manufacturer's valve chart shows that the exhaust valves open .008" during six degrees of crank-shaft travel. Therefore a valve that was misaligned .016" or twice .008" would equal approximately twelve degrees of crank travel, partially delaying the opening of valves. Twelve degrees from thirty degrees leaves eighteen degrees, and eighteen degrees would equal 1/240th of a second instead of 1/1 44th as it should have been. In the design of this engine thirty degrees was considered ample time to blow off the high pressure gases. It is obvious if there is any pressure in the cylinders when the ports are exposed that the gases will blow out into the air manifold if the pressure is greater than the pressure in the air manifold or the amount maintained by the air blower. (The air blower maintains a pressure of only three pounds.)
If some of these gases are trapped in the cylinder due to the delay when the exhaust valves close, then if the engine travels around until it gets the next injection of fuel and the resultant explosion is not ample or sufficient due to faulty mixture, the governor will open the injector and admit more fuel. It will explode again on the next revolution and if it still lacks sufficient power, the fuel will be increased more and more which will throw the ratio out of proportion and increase the fuel consumption to a point that will be prohibitive. Since the fuel is coming into the cylinders from one place and the air from another, a very bad situation can occur that would not take place in a four-cycle carbureted engine.
This illustration tends to show the enormous volume of gas that is compressed into the cylinders of a diesel engine — about fifty times the normal capacity of the cylinder at atmospheric pressure.
Remember that the valve seats in this particular engine were misaligned at an average of .016" each. The misalignment of the valves was not checked. With the Kwik-Way System of Scientific Valve and Valve Seat Correction, the valves and valve seats in this engine were restored to proper concentricity and alignment, which sealed compression at the valves. As a result the fuel consumption was restored to the manufacturer's rating which was only about one-fourth of the fuel that had been used during the period of valve misalignment.
It can be definitely seen that if valve misalignment will cause a diesel-type engine to increase fuel consumption from a rated nine gallons per hour to forty gallons per hour, this same condition will to an equal or less extent affect other engines of the diesel type. Again, use of a torque wrench to tighten cylinder head bolts or nuts is necessary to insure against block distortion which can cause misalignment and valve seat distortion.
The engine of today is a marvel of perfection. It will perform satisfactorily in temperatures ranging from one hundred and twenty degrees above zero to from twenty to forty degrees below zero. It has fast acceleration and speed beyond the margins of safety and thousands of miles of satisfactory service. But it has been truthfully said that the engine has not been built that cannot be improved by the service that may be rendered by a well-trained mechanic who uses the proper equipment.
Kwik-Way Products Inc.
PRECISION ENGINE RECONDITIONING EQUIPMENT INCLUDES
- VALVE FACERS
- VALVE SEAT GRINDERS
- CYLINDER BORING BARS
- ENGINE BORING FIXTURES
- SURFACE GRINDERS
- BRAKE SERVICE EQUIPMENT
Copyright 1948, all rights reserved
Kwik-Way Products Inc.,500 57th St., Marion, Iowa
Revised Edition 1979
4mm Valve Chuck Disassembly / Assembly Tool
[This tool is required to perform the following operations]
STEP 1: Remove the chuck cover from the Chuck Bearing Assembly, being careful not to pull any wires from the cover.. Rotate the Chuck so that the Grind Mark on the front collar and the Yellow Mark on the Spring are Vertical as show in the photo below.
STEP 2: Remove the (3) three 8 x 32 x 5/16 slot head screws from the Chuck End Cap (Black) shown below.
STEP 3: Use the Disassembly Tool (picture at the top of this document) which is standard equipment with your machine, put the 8 x 32 screws (3) into the chuck shaft in a 1/4 of an inch. Put the 1/4 x 20 Hex Head Bolt finger tight against the End Plate.
STEP 4: Remove the Chuck Yoke.
STEP 5: Loosen the 1/4 x 20 Hex head bolt counter clockwise. As you release the 1/4 x 20 bolt, the spring pressure should begin to release.. NOTE: You may need to soak the chuck in Automatic Transmission Fluid to remove grit and make the collars slide easier.
STEP 6: Remove the Chuck Disassembly Tool.
STEP 7: Begin to remove the outer collar from the chuck shaft. Next, remove the Loading Cup with the Four (4) springs. The large spring and inner collar will be removed along with the Thrust Step Washer. As you take the Inner collar off the steel chuck balls(9/16) may fall out of the chuck shaft.
STEP 8: Remove the Chuck Handwheel and belt from the chuck shaft. Remove the chuck from the chuck bearing assembly. Clean all parts with a parts cleaning solvent.
STEP 9: (1) Put the shaft back in the chuck bearing slide, use transmission fluid only and coat the chuck shaft. Make sure the keys are vertical.
(2) Put the thrust washer, spring, and (3) three rear balls back on the chuck shaft, making sure that the Yellow mark is lined up with the Keys. hold on to the bottom balls so they don't fall out of the shaft.
(3) Slide on the Inner collar, so all three rear balls are inside of the collar.
(4) Put the front set of balls in the shaft. Install the loading cup with four(4) springs facing out.
(5) Install the outer collar, making sure the grind mark is lined up with the keyways.
(6) Reinstall the Disassembly tool. Put the three screws (8 x 32) in one quarter (1/4) of an inch. Begin to tighten the 1/4 x 20 bolt, making sure that the collars are still lined up with the keys. Run 1/4 x 20 bolt in until it is tight.
(7) Reinstall the Chuck Yoke.
(8) Remove the Disassembly Tool and reinstall the chuck End Cap with the three 8 x 32 screws.
(9) Reinstall the chuck Handwheel and Belt, making sure the chuck and chuck handwheel are snug to the chuck bearing slide.
(10) Reinstall the chuck cover. Make sure there are no wires touching the chuck.
Valve Grinder Chuck Inspection
Chuck accuracy is critical to producing a quality valve job.
Most O.E.M.'s require a valve face run-out to be below .0015. To accomplish this, the chuck in a valve grinder must not only run-out below .0015, but must repeat this every time.
High performance engines require even greater accuracy. In some cases run-out must be below .0005.
Start by finding a known round and straight part. A valve seat pilot, carbide if you have one will work very well. If you do not have one, use a section of drill rod that is straight and round. This will be your test piece.
- Insert the test piece into the chuck so that it is gripped correctly and has at least two inches of protrusion past the face of the chuck.
- Install a dial indicator (.0000 reading if possible) so as to have the plunger contact the test piece one inch from the face of the chuck.
- Turn the machine on and observe the indicator as the chuck is rotating. The reading at this point should not exceed .0015.
If the reading is inexcess of the .0015, you can first disassemble the chuck and clean it thoroughly. (Follow directions given in the machine manual). Examine the ramps on which the ball bearings ride, if wear is evident (grooves), the chuck will require placement. Kwik-Way provides new chucks that have less than .0005 run out and for the standard SVSIID and a Hi-Performance version with less than .0002 run out.
If you have any quesitons in regards to chuck performance, or if you need a replacement chuck, contact;
Kwik-Way Tech Services at 800-553-5953.
Kwik-Way Industries, Inc., began as the Cedar Rapids Engineering Company in 1920, providing a product sorely needed by the fledgling automobile and truck industry—a reliable, standardized way to reface engine valves. Until the Kwik-Way valve refacing machine was marketed, that process was performed, with difficulty, by hand. Charles C. Hahn, founder of the company, was a former blacksmith's apprentice who appreciated automobiles and wanted to solve some of their engine problems, such as valves warped by heat and wear. He queried machine tool makers around the country who not only lacked a lathe "chuck" to fit his needs but flatly told Hahn that such a tool couldn't be built.
Hahn persevered, however, and with R.H. Meister, an experienced machinist, founded Cedar Rapids Engineering Company. The partners hired a creative mechanical engineer, A.I. Dunn, and between them, the trio designed the chuck needed to reface engine valves. The device worked and the Kwik-Way valve facing machine was born.
The firm's first modest office and shop was located at 902 Seven teenth Street Northeast in Cedar Rapids, and measured only 20 by 20 feet. However, the new product caught on fast throughout the United States and the business grew. The company's first salesman was I.R. Goodwin, an energetic young man who made his money the hard way—covering the dusty roads of Nebraska, North and South Dakota, and northwestern Iowa by automobile, peddling his wares primarily to garages.
During World War II, Cedar Rapids Engineering Company put its close-tolerance machining skills to work grinding radio crystals for the Allied defense effort. As the company continued to expand, an eye was cast toward foreign markets. Although some sales had been made overseas almost by accident, it wasn't until 1962 that Kwik-Way machines were marketed abroad directly by Cedar Rapids Engineering Company. That year, overseas sales totaled $68,000; today, that annual figure amounts to several million dollars.
After Charles Hahn's death in the 1940s, control of the enterprise was assumed, first by his partner, R.H. Meister, and then by Hahn's two sons, F. Critz and H. Cedric. In 1968, Cedar Rapids Engineering Company was merged into the newly formed Kwik-Way Industries, Inc., headed by Thomas A. Parks and a new professional management team. The company acquired a Canadian firm in 1969, now called Kwik - Way Manufacturing of Canada, Ltd. In late 1973, Material Products Company, a steel fabricating firm, and Line-O-Tronics, Inc., maker of auto front-end alignment tools and wheel balancers, were acquired. Today Kwik-Way manufactures the automotive industry's most complete line of repair machinery.
A large industrial facility was built and occupied at 500 Fifty-seventh Street, Marion, in 1976. In 1 9 8 0 , the company employs approximately 300 people through its Marion facility, 140 at Rock Island, Illinois, and 50 at its facility at Toronto, Canada.
By far, the best way to determine which model of Valve Refacer you have is to give your serial number to the Kwik-Way Representative when you call in. The Serial number is located above the 15 degree mark on the angle gauge of all but the very oldest valve refacers. For most of them there will be a letter D or S after the first letters of SVS, but some of the really old units might have a number like "KK 234". Regardless, if you give the entire set of letters and numbers to a Kwik-Way Representative, they will be able to insure that you are getting the correct parts or consumables for your particular model of Valve Refacer.
Here is a photo of a 2009 production serial number.
Here are some other things that will help you identify your SVS valve refacer.
|Early SVS||SVSII D (Deluxe)||SVSII S (Standard)|
|Serial Numbers:202-2681||SNs: 3,003-5173; 10,000(KWP) and up.||SNs: 10,003-10,166|
|Air Operated Chuck||Air Operated Chuck||Lever Operated Chuck|
|Variable Speed Chuck||Variable Speed Chuck||One Speed Chuck|
|Aluminum Chuck Cover||Plastic Chuck Cover||Plastic Chuck Cover|
|Rubber Mat on Chuck Cover||No Rubber Mat on Chuck Cover||No Rubber Mat on Chuck Cover|
|Does not have a valve counter||
Valve counter present
|Does not have a valve counter.|